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Date Posted Article
January 30, 2012 Proposed Changes to Autism Definition May Mean New Diagnoses for People with Asperger's
June 1, 2011 New Service Delivery Models - Connecting SLPs with Teachers and Curriculum
September 10, 2010 Quick Brain Scan Could Screen for Autism
September 10, 2010 "Dumb" Phones, Smart Lessons
September 10, 2010 Signs of Autism May Show in Early Infancy
September 10, 2010 Alabama Official Urges NCLB Reforms for Special Education
September 10, 2010 Asperger’s, ‘Mental Retardation’ Likely History In Revised DSM
May 19, 2010 A New Therapy Tool - The iPhone
April 6, 2010 Seeing the Brain Hear
April 6, 2010 Family Impact of Autism
April 6, 2010 Phrasing - A Fluency-Shaping Technique for Stuttering
April 6, 2010  Interesting Article (Ref:  Jim Thurman, UCA)
October 7, 2009 Language Development in Autism
October 7, 2009 Ear Infection Recovery Monitor
October 7, 2009 Elementary School Intervention
September 25, 2009 Preschool-Level Reading, Social Skills Can Be Taught Concurrently
September 23, 2009 Pediatric Titles from Plural
July 29, 2009 Debate Over Drugs For ADHD Reignites
July 29, 2009 A User's Guide to the Brain
May 26, 2009 2009 Essential Speech, Language, and Hearing Bookshelf
May 11, 2009 Recent Titles from Plural Publishing
December 18, 2008 Canine Comfort Opens Closed World
December 12, 2008 Dyslexia Studies Catch Neuroplasticity at Work
November 21, 2008 Speech Production Disorders - Intensive Scheduling Improves Outcomes
November 18, 2008 Excerpts from Division 16 Listserv (Articulation Norms)
 

Proposed Changes to Autism Definition May Mean New Diagnoses for People with Asperger's:  "The proposed revisions - which are "90 percent complete" - would dramatically change the current diagnostic criteria for an autism spectrum disorder, The New York Times reported, potentially re-diagnosing tens of thousands of people.  The proposed changes have some experts and parents worried that lots of people who currently are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder may be left in the dark when it comes to necessary state benefits."  [Full article]  CBSNews HealthPop, January 20, 2012

[Posted January 30, 2012]

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New Service Delivery Models - Connecting SLPs with Teachers and Curriculum:  "Little evidence suggests that two half-hour sessions weekly promote students' ability to acquire and generalize speech or language skills, yet this option is typically chosen by teams that develop the Individualized Education Program (IEP).  In a systematic review of research on school service delivery models, Cirrin et al. (2010) found that in many instances classroom-based services were at least as effective—if not more effective—in helping students to meet speech-language objectives.  To reconcile the requirement to serve every student in the LRE within the constraints of the daily school schedule, SLPs should look beyond twice-weekly sessions and consider a wide range of service delivery options to meet students' individual needs.  For example, clinicians are finding that "blast" treatment—providing short bursts of daily intervention—is proving to be very effective for many students.  Clustering or grouping several students who receive speech services in selected classrooms is a helpful management tool, but it requires support from school administrators."  [Full article ASHA Leader, August 31, 2010

[Posted June 1, 2011]

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Quick Brain Scan Could Screen for Autism "A 15-minute brain scan could in future be used to test for autism, helping doctors diagnose the complex condition more cheaply and accurately.  British scientists said on Tuesday their rapid test had proved more than 90 percent accurate in adults and there was no reason why it should not work equally well in children.  It could be a boon for patients and their doctors by reducing reliance on time-consuming and emotionally trying assessments based on interviews and behavioral observation.  Autism is a complex brain disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication, ranging from mild to profound impairment.  The new scanning method -- which picks up on structural changes in the brain's grey matter -- could be ready for general use in a couple of years. The next goal is to test it in children."  [Full article Reuters, August 10, 2010

[Posted September 10, 2010]

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“Dumb” Phones, Smart Lessons  - Schools Answer Student Calls for Mobile Computing:  "In Santa Ana, CA, Judy Pederson smiles when she sees her ninth-grade English Literature class bent over their cell phones, furiously texting.  They are engaged and on task, and she will soon have their thoughts on the possible consequences of Friar Lawrence marrying two star-crossed lovers in sixteenth-century Verona.  The students’ texts go from their phones to a website to the white board on her classroom wall.  “Before, it was difficult getting them to write,” says the Valley High School teacher, who has decided to exploit rather than fight the oft-observed teen addiction to cell phones. “But now when I ask them to compose back stories or give advice to conflicted literary characters, they’re into it.”"  [Full article Harvard Education Letter, v26, n4, July/August 2010

[Posted September 10, 2010]

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Signs of Autism May Show in Early Infancy "Signs of autism may show up in babies as young as 1 month old, a new study shows.  But the tip-offs are not the usual red flags, such as a lack of eye contact or smiling, the researchers noted.  Instead, they found babies who needed neonatal intensive care and were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder were more likely to have abnormal muscle tone and differences in their visual processing than babies who went on to develop normally after time in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)."  [Full article HealthDay News, August 3, 2010

[Posted September 10, 2010]

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Alabama Official Urges NCLB Reforms for Special Education:  An Alabama education official is calling for changes to the federal No Child Left Behind Act regarding academic achievement for students in special education.  Tommy Bice, the state's vice chancellor for education, acknowledged the benefits of requiring students in special education to take the same standardized tests as their peers, but said it should be a goal rather than a requirement that they pass.  Low scores among students in special education caused some Alabama school districts to fall short of federal benchmarks.  [Full articleDothan Eagle, August 4, 2010

[Posted September 10, 2010]

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Asperger’s, ‘Mental Retardation’ Likely History In Revised DSM:  ""Intellectual disability" would replace "mental retardation" and Asperger’s syndrome would be folded into "autism spectrum disorders" under proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders unveiled [in February].  The recommendations are among several sweeping changes psychiatric experts are calling for in the forthcoming fifth edition of the manual known as the DSM, which is expected in May 2013.  The DSM serves as the bible for mental health professionals, researchers and insurers as it determines what symptoms are worthy of an official diagnosis.  The current edition was released in 1994.  [Full articleDisability Scoop, February 10, 2010

[Posted September 10, 2010]

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A New Therapy Tool - The iPhone:  "I wanted to share something that has been interesting so far in my private therapy sessions with an 11-year-old boy who has autism.  I have incorporated into therapy an iPhone, which has many different features that are available by touching the screen.  My client doesn't know his personal information, and at this juncture I feel that is more important than being able to identify the main idea of a passage in a book that he can't read or comprehend and, in the end, couldn't care less about.  Having him recite and write his personal information on paper proved to be cumbersome and time consuming.  Then it occurred to me . . ."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, March 31, 2010

[Posted April 6, 2010]

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Seeing the Brain Hear:  "Neurobiologists at the University of Maryland have discovered information about how the brain processes sound that challenges previous understandings of the auditory cortex, which had suggested an organization based on precise neuronal maps.  In the first study of the auditory cortex conducted using advanced imaging techniques, Patrick Kanold, PhD, assistant professor of biology, Shihab Shamma, PhD, professor of electrical and computer engineering, and Sharba Bandyopadhyay, PhD, post-doctoral associate, describe a much more complex picture of neuronal activity."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, April 1, 2010

[Posted April 6, 2010]

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Family Impact of Autism:  "A new study suggests a trend toward developing hyperactivity among typically developing elementary-school-aged siblings of autistic preschoolers and supports the notion that mothers of young, autistic children experience more depression and stress than mothers with typically developing children."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, April 1, 2010

[Posted April 6, 2010]

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Phrasing - A Fluency-Shaping Technique for Stuttering:  "Phrasing is a fluency-shaping technique that reduces the rate of communication and encourages children who stutter to take advantage of the linguistic breaks that occur naturally in speech.  The technique not only encourages children to speak slowly and more clearly but contributes to listener comprehension.  Children with sound language skills typically have an easy time picking up on this concept."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, April 1, 2010

[Posted April 6, 2010]

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Interesting ArticleRead the following article from the Three Rivers Edition of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette about how a former student of Jim Thurman, professor at UCA, is using his sign language skills.

http://www.arkansasonline.com/news/2010/apr/04/searcy-man-gains-valuable-life-experience-20100404/

[Posted April 6, 2010]

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Language Development in Autism:  "A more standardized approach is needed to evaluate the language skills of young children with autism spectrum disorders, according to a forthcoming article in the Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research.  The authors, a panel of experts assembled by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), are advocating the new method so that researchers, clinicians, and other professionals are better able to compare the effectiveness of intervention strategies used for treating children with autism spectrum disorders.  Current approaches are inconsistent, and the most widely used benchmark for these children has been the development of 'functional speech,' an ambiguous term with no defined criteria."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, February 12, 2009

[Posted October 7, 2009]

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Ear Infection Recovery Monitor:  "A simple 13-point symptom score can help in tracking improvement in infants and toddlers with middle ear infection, or acute otitis media (AOM), according to a recent study.  Nader Shaikh, MD, MPH, and colleagues of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh have developed a new AOM symptom severity scale, the 'AOM-SOS'."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, March 5, 2009

[Posted October 7, 2009]

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Elementary School Intervention:  "Fifteen years after they completed an intervention program designed to help their social development in elementary school, young adults reported better mental health, sexual health, and higher educational and economic achievement than a control group of young adults who didn't receive the intervention, according to a new study.  The data, collected when the participants were 24 and 27 years old, comes from the ongoing Seattle Social Development Project that is following a group of people from childhood into adulthood."  [Full articleADVANCE Online, January 29, 2009

[Posted October 7, 2009]

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Preschool-Level Reading, Social Skills Can Be Taught Concurrently:  A study funded by the National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies shows that it's possible to teach preschoolers the pre-reading skills they need for later school success, while at the same time fostering the socials skills necessary for making friends and avoiding conflicts with their peers.  The findings address long standing concerns on whether preschool education programs should emphasize academic achievement or social and emotional development.  [Full articleADVANCE Online, December 8, 2008

[Posted September 25, 2009]

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Pediatric Titles from Plural: 

Speech Sound Disorders in Children by Rhea Paul, PhD, CCC-SLP, and Peter Flipsen, Jr., PhD - Forthcoming November 2009 and written in honor of Lawrence D. Shriberg, Speech Sound Disorders in Children covers a variety of perspectives and disciplines on the way in which children's speech sounds develop and the difficulties in both specific speech disorders and the speech of children with other primary disabilities.

Speech Development Guide for Children with Hearing Loss by Frederick Berg, PhD - This 160 page guide is a handy resource for clinicians.  Its contents include diagrams and descriptions, which blend pictures, words and sentences together; worksheets; lesson plans; sensory cues and aids for shaping speech; syllable drills; progress and final report forms; guidelines for parents; and a list of suggested reading to follow up on related subjects.  This is a time-proven curriculum, which has resulted in a high rate of speech improvement in children with hearing loss.

Speech Practice Material:  From Sounds to Dialogues by Jack E. Thomas, CCC-SLP, BC-ANCDS - This text features materials that are not based on or related to any particular treatment program. They are intended to be versatile, flexible, and used in many ways for many populations. Some of the stimuli are tried-and-true with some new variations. Some particular therapy techniques and variations on how to use and alter the material are suggested in this book, but no particular theory or step-by-step approach is recommended or supported. Decisions about whom to use it with, how, and why, are in the hands, judgment, and creativity of the clinician. This book invites therapists to think critically and study and apply the best evidence and practice guidelines from the current professional literature.

Speech Articulation CD-ROM with Support Cards by Fred Minifie, PhD and Robert O'Brien - This interactive software program provides valuable instructional/clinical tools for speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists, speech scientists, linguists, teachers of singing, and other professionals.  This program includes 41 dynamic animations, with sound, of the structural movements involved in the production of each of the vowels and consonants of American English.

Developmental Language Disorders:  Learning, Language, and the Brain by Diane Williams, PhD, CCC-SLP - Williams’ new book is deliberately targeted at the clinician and student, and is grounded in the belief that the most effective intervention for developmental disorders is based on an understanding of the underlying neurobiology and neurofunctional basis of the disorder – in a clear and accessible form.

[Posted September 23, 2009]

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Debate Over Drugs For ADHD Reignites - Long-Term Benefit For Children at Issue:  New data from a large federal study have reignited a debate over the effectiveness of long-term drug treatment of children with hyperactivity or attention-deficit disorder, and have drawn accusations that some members of the research team have sought to play down evidence that medications do little good beyond 24 months.  The study also indicated that long-term use of the drugs can stunt children's growth.  The latest data paint a very different picture than the study's positive initial results, reported in 1999.  [Full articleWashington Post, March 27, 2009

[Posted July 29, 2009]

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A User's Guide to the Brain:  Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain:  John Ratey, MD, brings us brilliant and interesting insight into our grey matter.  He talks about the basic chemistry and physical structure of our brain and how and WHY it acts the way it does.  416 pages, paperback, $10.85 at www.Amazon.com.  Information you can glean from this book includes:

bullet

Development

bullet

Perception

bullet

Attention and Consciousness

bullet

Movement

bullet

Memory

bullet

Emotion

bullet

Language

bullet

The Social Brain

bullet

The Four Theaters

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Care and Feeding

[Posted July 29, 2009]

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2009 Essential Speech, Language, and Hearing BookshelfOver 50 new professional level textbooks and monographs are published every year in the field of Speech, Language, and Hearing, with an average price of almost $70.  How do you find the time to determine which ones you should add to your bookshelf for your busy Speech, Language, and Hearing practice and research?  Let the Essential Speech, Language, and Hearing Bookshelf be your guide.  The “must-have” titles on this list were selected by a team made up of clinical experts and medical librarians who are collection development experts in Speech, Language and Hearing.  This brand new list represents titles that were available at the time of the selection process in the Spring of 2009.

[Posted May 26, 2009]

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NEW!  Recent Titles from Plural Publishing

bullet Behavior Assessment Battery for School-Age Children Who Stutter (2006) This assessment is a multi-dimensional set of inter-related, evidence-based, self-report tests that provide normative data for children between the ages of six and fifteen.  The Battery has evolved and been refined over many years and has been used with an innumerable number of clients all over the world.  These self-report test procedures provide speech pathologists and their professional colleagues with a multi-dimensional view of how a child is affected by how he or she feels, reacts to, and thinks about his or her speech.
bullet KiddyCAT - Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (2006) This is a companion test to the Behavior Assessment Battery designed for use with children under the age of six.  It enables effective assessment of the speech-associated attitude of preschool and kindergarten children.  The instructions and the test items are specifically formulated at the linguistic level of this age group.  The KiddyCAT is accompanied by a resource manual, a quick-access scoring key, and the methodology for data interpretation.
bullet Smooth Talking - A Curriculum for School-Age Children Who Stutter (2006) Smooth Talking is a comprehensive curriculum geared toward children who stutter. Its contents include a clinician's manual, which was developed based on work with over forty school-age children, representing a diverse sample of children, including White, African American, and Mexican American children; a student workbook with eye-catching illustrations, games, stories and poems; an audio CD containing a listening/cognitive retraining message to be listened to during a quiet time or relaxation period; and a DVD demonstrating the curriculum.
bullet Treatment Protocols for Stuttering (2006) This book provides an unprecedented wealth of resources for clinicians who treat adult and child fluency disorders, including:  evidence-based protocols for treatment, flexible and facilitative scripted scenarios, time-saving, researched, and proven plans of action, and a CD with modifiable and reproducible forms to allow individualized treatment and documentation.
bullet The Late Eight (2006) This new book is a resource for clinicians, students, and academics working with students whose speech contains errors affecting /δ/ (voiced "th"), /θ/, /s/, /z/, /l/, /r/, vocalic /r/, /S/, and /tS/. These nine sounds typically are the last acquired by English speaking children, and are the sounds most likely to challenge school-aged students and non-native English speakers, both children and adults.  It fills the need for a resource that a student or clinician can turn to when treating a school-aged student or non-native English speaker who experiences difficulties with one or more late acquired sounds.
bullet Handbook of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder, Volume I, Auditory Neuroscience and Diagnosis (2006) The first volume of Musiek and Chermak's definitive handbook provides comprehensive coverage of auditory neuroscience and clinical science needed to accurately diagnose the range of developmental and acquired (C)APD disorders in children, adults, and older adults.  With contributions from world-renowned authors, the handbook reflects major advances in auditory neuroscience and cognitive science, particularly over the last two decades.  The chapters in this volume cover basic science foundations, diagnostic principles and procedures, and multidisciplinary assessment, as well as addressing the ongoing research and development in diagnostics.
bullet Handbook of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder Volume II, Comprehensive Intervention (2006) Volume II covers rehabilitative and professional issues, detailing practical intervention strategies for children and adults. The chapters in this volume cover auditory neuroscience and acoustic foundations of intervention, evidence-based practice, multidisciplinary approaches, and emerging and future directions in intervention.
bullet Language Disorders in Bilingual Children and Adults (2007) In separate chapters, the book synthesizes the literatures on bilingual children and adults with typical and atypical language skills to give the reader a deep understanding of the multiple factors that affect language development and disorders in those who rely on two languages for meaningful interactions.  Assessment and intervention issues and methods are presented separately for each population.  The focus for children is on primary developmental language disorder (specific language impairment, language learning impairment, isolated language impairment, late talkers).  For adults the focus is on primary acquired language impairment, in particular aphasia.  Although child and adult, typical and atypical populations are presented separately, all are considered within a unifying Dynamic Interactive Processing perspective.  This broad theoretical framework emphasizes interactions between social, cognitive and communicative systems to form the basis for very practical implications related to assessment and intervention.
bullet Speech Practice Materials from Sounds to Dialogues (2008) This text features materials that are not based on or related to any particular treatment program.  They are intended to be versatile, flexible, and used in many ways for many populations.  Some of the stimuli are tried-and-true with some new variations.  Some particular therapy techniques and variations on how to use and alter the material are suggested in this book, but no particular theory or step-by-step approach is recommended or supported.  Decisions about whom to use it with, how, and why, are in the hands, judgment, and creativity of the clinician.  This book invites therapists to think critically and study and apply the best evidence and practice guidelines from the current professional literature.
bullet Speech Sounds - A Pictorial Guide to Typical and Atypical Speech (2008) Speech Sounds contains maps of the mouth.  Just as an atlas is a collection of maps in book form, so this book contains a collection of images or maps that have captured different aspects of the production of the consonants and vowels of English.  As an atlas highlights topographies and landmarks, this book highlights relevant articulatory and acoustic aspects for the production for each English speech sound.  A companion flip chart, which enables ready comparison of key images for each consonant and vowel, is also available (see next).
bullet Seeing Speech - A Quick Guide to Speech Sounds (2008) This flip chart enables ready comparison of key images for each consonant and vowel.  It is of particular importance for speech-language pathologists working with adults and children to change their articulation of sounds and for students of phonetics as they develop an understanding of the similarities and differences between sounds.
bullet Controversies in Central Auditory Processing Disorder (2008) In the foreword, Dr. Robert Burkard states, "If you are looking for a clinical cookbook on how to diagnose and treat those with (central) auditory processing disorders (CAPD), you should not read this book.  This book is much less than a clinical cookbook, and much, much more."  Featuring contributions from a stellar team of expert contributors in the areas of audiology, psychology, anatomy, neuroscience, imaging science, and epidemiology, this new book addresses major controversies in the field of auditory processing and its disorders.  The contributors consider a range of topics including the history of the field, contemporary anatomical models, auditory processing streams, neuroplasticity, professional models, modality specificity, music perception and its disorders, speech recognition, aging, educational outcomes, tinnitus, and auditory neuropathy.
bullet Literacy and Deafness - Listening and Spoken Language (2009) This book is about learning to listen and speak in order to learn to read and write.  It deals with the evidence of persistent low literacy levels in many individuals with hearing loss and with evidence of higher literacy levels in those with hearing loss who have learned to listen.  At a time when technology is racing along to produce ever better access to sound, this book attempts to pull together the dominant literacy research done in the “hearing world” and apply it to the world of the deaf and hard of hearing who can now experience all sorts of sound.  The author makes the argument that helping a child learn to listen is the best insurance that he or she will learn to read and write. It comes from both a research-based and a personal point of view.
bulletComing in October 2009!  Learning and the Brain for Developmental Language Disorders
bulletComing April 2010!  Linking the Strands of Language and Literacy - Resources for Practitioners

[Posted May 11, 2009]

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Canine Comfort Opens Closed World:  "Xander, short for Alexander, was diagnosed with autism as a four-year-old.  Texas, a two-year-old yellow Labrador retriever with a pleasing disposition, is full of love for human beings.  Xander McTavish, 7, and Texas have become fast friends since they met.  The dog has become an instant companion for the autistic boy.  A society called Dogs With Wings have, for years now, nurtured, loved and trained dogs to help and guide blind and disabled people.  A year ago, they began training dogs to be companions for kids with autism.  Dogs trained for autistic children are done so with three main goals in mind:  Safety, independence and companionship.  Because autistic children are a constant flight risk, they can be tethered to their dog, instead of constantly in their guardian's grip."  [Full articleThe Edmonton Journal, August 22, 2008

[Posted December 18, 2008]

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Dyslexia Studies Catch Neuroplasticity at Work:  Researchers using functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, have detected which parts of the brain become stronger as children with dyslexia develop their ability to read.  As reported in the journal Neuropsychologia, follow-up scans one year after the children received 100 hours of remedial reading from teachers showed that this increase in activation continued, reaching normal levels in the left parietal lobe.  These fMRI scans reveal the vigor of neuroplasticity, the process by which neurons create new connections among themselves.  [Full articleBrain Work (Volume 18, Number 5), October 28, 2008

[Posted December 12, 2008]

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Speech Production Disorders - Intensive Scheduling Improves Outcomes:  "Therapy provided on a more intensive schedule can be a catalyst for real change.  When sessions are close together in time, memory issues—such as helping the child recall the error pattern, the correct pattern, and the tactile and auditory feedback differences between the two—have little impact.  The child experiences how correct and incorrect patterns are different with less reliance on memory.  New patterns are stabilized via massed practice.  This works to 'overwhelm' the old, incorrect patterns, and allows them to be replaced with new, correct ones."  [Full articleADVANCE (Volume 17, Issue 11), March 12, 2007

[Posted November 21, 2008]

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Excerpts from Division 16 Listserv:  With the hope of encouraging Division membership/affiliation, I will be sharing discussion excerpts from the topics discussed on the ASHA Special Interest Division 16 (School-Based Services) listserv.  It represents only one of the useful benefits of Division 16 affiliation.  The topic of this posting is Articulation Norms.  - Shelly

Kim from NY asks . . . "Does anyone have a file with the newest articulation norms?  I am working on putting something together for the district I work in and having the information in a word document would be helpful."

Sue says . . . "I found the info below [see Powell, 1991 below] on a powerpoint which is too large to attach here.  I'm also attach[ing] a scanned in copy of Iowa Nebraska Norms (1996) that a friend sent.  Don't know if they're the most current.

21 Things To Consider In Addition To Norms When Selecting Targets, Powell (1991)
bulletAge of child
bulletNormative order
bulletEase of production
bulletEffect on intelligibility
bulletError consistency
bulletFrequency of sound occurrence
bulletHomonymy
bulletMarkedness
bulletMorphological status
bulletNumber of errors
bulletPerceptual saliency
bulletPhonetic inventory
bulletPhonetic error type
bulletPhonological error type
bulletPhonotactic constraints
bulletPhonological knowledge
bulletRelevance to child
bulletResources available
bulletAge appropriateness of error(s)
bulletSeverity of disorder
bulletStimulability

Monique in NJ says . . . "I am a big advocate of the work Caroline Bowen does in Australia.  She is published here in the states as well.  Take a look at this: [http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/Table4.htm].

Jill in FL says . . . "Have you thought of the Goldman-Fristoe 2 (published by AGS in 2000)?  They are very detailed with IMF position in word norms, 6 month intervals, and male and female norms.  They actually sent out a separate little booklet with these norms when I got it initially . Not sure if they still do.

Trish in RI says . . . "The SLPs in my district just updated our norms based on more current research.  Attached is what we are using starting now.  [Attachment]

Jill in MI says . . . "The state of Michigan is using the Iowa Articulation Norms (updated in 1990)."

Christine in WI says . . . "Wisconsin uses these norms as well."

Joyce says . . . "The discussion on norms has been interesting.  I am wondering exactly how you use these when determining qualifying for service.  Does the student have to be one year past the norm?  Or do you use norms and intelligibility?  I noticed /f/ is in 3 and in 5.  Which is it?  Do you consider word position?  I have found that some children have /k/, /g/, /f/ in word final but struggle getting it initially.  Those students we don't enroll early or our caseloads would be huge.  But if I show the norms to parents with /k/ being in the 3 year old range, I would have trouble saying it is developmental."

Kimberly in TX says . . . "I have another question.  I usually tell parents that children should have the clusters (s, r, and l) by age 4 (or so).  What I mean is that they should be MARKING all sounds in the cluster--it is acceptable for them to substitute w/r or w/l but not to leave out a sound completely.  I am assuming that these norms reflect an expectation that the child at age 6-9 is to be articulating the s, r, and l sounds correctly.  Or--does it suggest that deleting a sound from a cluster is acceptable until those ages?  Can someone clarify?"

Shelley in CT says . . . "In our state...eligibility for special education speech articulation services is a two pronged thing...child must have sound errors AND child's speech intelligibility must be impacted. Both...not one or the other."

Trish in RI says . . . "You can look at The Late Eight by Ken Bleile and Confusion about Speech Sound Norms and Their Use by Gregory Lof and an article from Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, Feb 1980."

Monique in NJ says . . . "When you think about it, the data is almost 29 years old......What is the most recent normative data?"

Shelley in CT says . . . "I'm going to stick my neck way out on this one.  For articulation purposes, I don't think there has been much change in the development of speech sounds.  The developmental charts I look at now vary considerably for one thing...and many of them look exactly the same as the old Templin Darley norms that I used when in undergrad school.  It's like saying that kids walk at a different age now than they did 30 years ago...the average was between 9-18 months for first walking and it still is.  The only change is that now we are also looking at the phonological processes in addition to the speech sound substitions/omissions/distortions.  Although, anyone back in the day, who studied distinctive features was analyzing the sounds then too."

Monique in NJ says . . . "I actually disagree although I do respect your opinion....I am currently in a doctoral program which makes me see things differently.  Norms are not always "norms" forever.  We cannot accept something just because we have been doing it this way for many years.  Our population HAS changed.  Norms that were completed OVER 29 years ago were on very different children than today's children.  Are we looking at the same population that we did 29 years ago, for example??  I highly doubt it.  How can we compare the children of today with those of over 30 years ago.  If you look at Caroline Bowen's site in Australia where they do speak English, you will find that sounds are expected at earlier ages based on THEIR normative data.  I look forward to future comments both pro and con re: this thinking.  What an intellectual group this is!!"

Shelley in CT says . . . "I fully agree that we cannot accept something because 'we have been doing it this way for many years.'  Believe me, the way I deliver services to children with articulation issues has changed dramatically.  I (and I think most folks) look at the phonological processes more carefully AND the intelligibility issue outweighs the developmental sound issues.  The thing is...I have at least ten different sound development charts...all recently published, some shared by members of this listserv and some from other published sources.  Even those do not agree on the 'norms' for sound development.  If you give several articulation assessments, the norms can vary wildly...one of the reasons why I don't find the norms as helpful as the actual performance of the child (what they did and didn't do).  I don't advocate using the Templin Darley norms.  But truthfully, there are only a couple of changes in those sound development guidelines as compared with SOME of the more recently published developmental guidelines.  When we look at kids, we need to look at each child and what they are doing and not doing, and how that affects intelligibility.  For example...a child who stops lots of things or has reductions in sound usage (blends for example) is going to be much more difficult to understand usually than a child with consistent sound substitutions. This is especially true if these subs are the 'typical' ones....th/s, w/r, w/l, f/th.  Anyway..I'm not advocating use of old norms."

Les says . . . "Yes, Bowen's work and her web site are well worth considering, but that's Australian English (with a Cockney accent in many cases).  Australian English norms are not necessarily the same as American English norms.  For that matter, New York City norms are not necessarily the same as San Francisco norms or Chicago norms or San Antonio norms -- or even the norms in New York's neighbors, Philadelphia or Boston.  We must look at how a certain set of norms were obtained, who did the testing, what criteria were applied to define 'normal' and much more.  We should be developing local norms, but that ain't easy.  I agree with Shelley and others who say that it is more important to consider the speech patterns of the individual child and how they impact his/her ability to communicate when compared with age peers in his local community along with the impact upon educational performance (NOT just academic achievement), and not rely solely on the averages provided by normative data of whatever source or vintage.  No matter what 'numbers' are required by various states (and I've always made a point of providing those), as far as the Federal regulations are concerned, it is the professional judgment of the SLP that from the early days of PL 94-142 to the present IDEA 2004 regulations has carried the most weight in determining the eligibility of students with speech disorders.  Once again, just my '2 cents' for what it's worth."

[Posted November 18, 2008]

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